Mao Zedong}} |image = File:Mao Zedong in 1963 (cropped).jpg |imagesize = |caption = Mao in 1963 |office = Chairman of the Communist Party of China |deputy = Liu Shaoqi
Hua Guofeng |term_start = 20 March 1943 |term_end = 9 September 1976 |predecessor = Zhang Wentian (as General Secretary) |successor = Hua Guofeng |office2 = Chairman of the People's Republic of China |term_start2 = 27 September 1954 |term_end2 = 27 April 1959 |premier2 = Zhou Enlai |deputy2 = Zhu De |predecessor2 = |successor2 = Liu Shaoqi |office3 = Chairman of the Central Military Commission |deputy3 = Zhu De
Ye Jianying |term_start3 = 8 September 1954 |term_end3 = 9 September 1976 |predecessor3 = |successor3 = Hua Guofeng |office4 = Chairman of the Central People's Government |term_start4 = 1 October 1949 |term_end4 = 27 September 1954 |deputy4 = |premier4 = Zhou Enlai |predecessor4 = |successor4 = |birth_name = |birth_date = |birth_place = Shaoshan, Hunan, Qing Empire |death_date = |death_place = Beijing, People's Republic of China |death_cause = Heart attack |resting_place = Chairman Mao Memorial Hall, Beijing |party = Communist Party of China (1921-1976) |otherparty = Kuomintang (1925–1926) |spouse = Luo Yixiu (1907–1910)
Yang Kaihui (1920–1930)
He Zizhen (1930–1937)
Jiang Qing (1939–1976) |children = 10, including:
Li Na |parents = |alma_mater = Hunan First Normal University |signature = Mao Zedong signature.svg |footnotes =
|t = |w = Mao² Tsê²-tung¹ |p = Máo Zédōng |gr = Mau Tzerdong |mi = |suz = Máu Zéh-ton |j = Mou4 Zaak6-dung1 |y = Mòuh Jaahk-dūng |ci = |poj = Mô͘ Te̍k-tong |tl = Môo Ti̍k-tang |h = Mô Chhe̍t-tûng |order = st |altname= Courtesy name |t2= |s2= |w2=Jun4-chih1 |p2=Rùnzhī |j2=Jeon6-zi1 |poj2=Lūn-chi }}}}
Mao Zedong; courtesy name Runzhi (}}).}} (; 26 December 18939 September 1976), also known as Chairman Mao and Mao Runzhi''' (courtesy name), was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist, his theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism.
Mao was the son of a prosperous peasant in Shaoshan, Hunan. He had a Chinese nationalist and an anti-imperialist outlook early in his life, and was particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement of 1919. He later adopted Marxism–Leninism while working at Peking University, and became a founding member of the Communist Party of China (CPC), leading the Autumn Harvest Uprising in 1927. During the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the CPC, Mao helped to found the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, led the Jiangxi Soviet's radical land policies, and ultimately became head of the CPC during the Long March. Although the CPC temporarily allied with the KMT under the United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), China's civil war resumed after Japan's surrender and in 1949 Mao's forces defeated the Nationalist government, which withdrew to Taiwan.
On 1 October 1949, Mao proclaimed the foundation of the PRC, a single-party state controlled by the CPC. In the following years he solidified his control through campaigns against landlords, suppression of "counter-revolutionaries", and through a psychological victory in the Korean War, which altogether caused the deaths of several-million Chinese. From 1953–1958, Mao played an important role in enforcing planned economy in China, constructing the first Constitution of the PRC, launching the industrialisation program, and initiating the "Two Bombs, One Satellite" project. On the other hand, in 1957, Mao launched the Anti-Rightist Campaign, which persecuted at least 550,000 people, most of whom were intellectuals and dissidents, and in 1958 he launched the Great Leap Forward that aimed to rapidly transform China's economy from agrarian to industrial. The latter led to the deadliest famine in history and the deaths of 20–45 million people between 1958 and 1962. In 1963, Mao launched the Socialist Education Movement, and 1966 he initiated the Cultural Revolution, a program to remove "counter-revolutionary" elements in Chinese society which lasted 10 years and was marked by violent class struggle, widespread destruction of cultural artifacts, and an unprecedented elevation of Mao's cult of personality. Tens of millions of people were persecuted during the Revolution, while the estimated number of deaths ranges from hundreds of thousands to 20 million, including Liu Shaoqi, the 2nd Chairman of the PRC. After years of ill health, Mao suffered a series of heart attacks in 1976 and died at the age of 82. During Mao's era, China's population grew from around 550 million to over 900 million while the government did not strictly enforce its family planning policy, forcing Mao's successors such as Deng Xiaoping to take stricter policies to cope with the overpopulation crisis.
A controversial figure, Mao is regarded as one of the most important and influential individuals in modern world history. He is also known as a political intellect, theorist, military strategist, poet, and visionary. During Mao's era, China involved in the Korean War, the Sino-Soviet split, the Vietnam War, and the rise of Khmer Rouge; in particular, in 1972, Mao welcomed U.S. President Richard Nixon in Beijing, signalling the start of a policy of opening China to the world. Supporters credit him with driving imperialism out of China, modernising the nation and building it into a world power, promoting the status of women, improving education and health care, as well as increasing life expectancy of average Chinese. Conversely, his regime has been called autocratic and totalitarian, and condemned for bringing about mass repression and destroying religious and cultural artifacts and sites. It was additionally responsible for vast numbers of deaths with estimates ranging from 30 to 70 million (some estimated 80 million) victims through starvation, persecution, prison labour and mass executions. Provided by Wikipedia
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